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In their detailed statistical analysis of the fossils, Hublin and paleoanthropologist Philipp Gunz, also of the Max Planck in Leipzig, find that a new partial skull has thin brow ridges.
And its face tucks under the skull rather than projecting forward, similar to the complete Irhoud skull as well as to people today.
Some researchers thought the trail of our species might have begun earlier.
This fits with another new date of 286,000 years (with a range of 254,000 to 318,000 years), from improved radiometric dating of a tooth.
“The main skull looks like something that could be near the root of the lineage,” says Klein, who says he would call them “protomodern, not modern.” The team doesn’t propose that the Jebel Irhoud people were directly ancestral to all the rest of us.
Rather, they suggest that these ancient humans were part of a large, interbreeding population that spread across Africa when the Sahara was green about 300,000 to 330,000 years ago; they later evolved as a group toward modern humans.
When he moved to the Max Planck Institute of Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, he got funding to reopen the now-collapsed cave, which is 100 kilometers west of Marrakesh, Morocco.
Hublin’s team began new excavations in 2004, hoping to date the small chunk of intact sediment layers and tie them to the original discovery layer. “We didn’t just get dates, we got more hominids.” The team now has new partial skulls, jaws, teeth, and leg and arm bones from at least five individuals, including a child and an adolescent, mostly from a single layer that also contained stone tools.